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We should not await the results of further models, observational research, or the ongoing couple-based avoidance trial before participating in population-structured trials of test-and-treat, the authors of a related Lancet Comment write. Avoidance of new infections will be the main goal but individual-level benefits can also be expected; to be evaluated initially increased costs to the health-care system against. Indeed, today’s results argue powerfully for a fresh generation of study on HIV avoidance at the population level with the best possible scientific methodology, including cluster-randomised trials .This article is republished with kind permission from our friends at The Kaiser Family Foundation. You can view the complete Kaiser Daily Health Policy Statement, search the archives, or join email delivery of in-depth coverage of health policy developments, debates and discussions.The treatment was irregular because of poor adherence; it turned out discontinued for 3 months before the patient was referred to our department. Exam showed that the individual was virilized with normal masculine features: pubic locks of Tanner stage 5, axillary locks of Tanner stage 3, penile length of 12 cm, regular testicular volume, and absence of gynecomastia. Preliminary and subsequent laboratory lab tests showed undetectable luteinizing hormone levels . Hypogonadism due to isolated deficiency of luteinizing hormone beta was suspected. Surprisingly, many spermiograms performed over a 10-month period regularly revealed normal amounts of spermatozoa .10 Testicular biopsy showed heterogeneous seminiferous tubules separated by fibrous tissue , made up of few mature, vacuolated Leydig cells .