We congratulate the trial sponsors, scientific collaborators, and companions who conducted this trial, and specifically want to thank the nearly 900 South African females whose altruism and dedication as trial volunteers produced this effort feasible. These volunteers and their communities possess made an inestimable contribution to HIV avoidance research and to the eventual development of new ways for men and women all over the world to safeguard themselves from HIV. We owe them a massive debts of gratitude, Warren stated. As we progress in our seek out microbicides and other fresh HIV prevention options, researchers will require the collaboration of tens of thousands more men and women around the global world in additional trials.Prenatal surgery was connected with higher prices of preterm birth, intraoperative problems, and uterine-scar defects apparent at delivery, along with a higher rate of maternal transfusion at delivery. Chorioamniotic separation, which escalates the threat of premature membrane rupture,20 was observed on ultrasonography in one fourth of females after prenatal surgery. Preterm labor resulting in early delivery, placental abruption, and pulmonary edema associated with tocolytic therapy are well-known problems of prenatal medical procedures. The evaluation of the hysterotomy site during delivery revealed thinning or a location of dehiscence in several third of the ladies. Since uterine dehiscence and rupture in a subsequent being pregnant are recognized dangers of prenatal surgery,21 mothers who undergo prenatal medical procedures must recognize that all subsequent pregnancies ought to be shipped by cesarean prior to the onset of labor.